Explanatory Statement for EMS Providers in the United States


Do EMS providers have situational awareness?

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My name is Justin Hunter and I am an Associate Professor at Oklahoma State University – Oklahoma City (OSU-OKC) and a PhD candidate with Monash University. Co-investigators include Professor Brett Williams from Monash University (Melbourne, Australia) and Dr. Michael Porter from Norman Regional Hospital and OSU Medical School Emergency Medicine Residency Faculty. 

Thank you for showing interest in this research project. I am seeking the participation of Oklahoma Providers licensed at the EMT, Advanced EMT, EMT-Intermediate, or Paramedic levels.   

As EMS providers, you need to develop a critical awareness of “what is going on around” you in order to function in clinical practice. You need to make potentially life-threatening decisions in complex, unpredictable, and demanding situations. This awareness, commonly called Situational Awareness (SA), is a cognitive process that involves perceiving, interpreting, and predicting critical elements of information during a certain task. A common educational strategy to develop this process is through immersive simulation techniques with appropriate feedback (enacted through manikins, actors, and role play).

This study will use a point-of-view video recording of a previous high-fidelity simulation involving paramedic students.  Based upon the ‘eye mind hypothesis’ the assumption is that gaze fixation is normally the focus of thought. Point-of-view recordings will inform a deeper understanding of emergency clinical performance, with the capacity to improve your learning.

We invite your participation

The research is approved by Monash University Ethics Committee as well as Oklahoma State University’s Institutional Review Board. 

What does the research involve?

Your entire involvement in this research will take approximately 30-40 minutes. You will first answer a general set of questions regarding your background and experience as an EMS provider in the U.S. 

Next, you will watch the recording of the simulation.  There will be several stops along the way where you will be asked a series of questions.  It is absolutely imperative that you work through the entire process in one sitting without refreshing your screen or starting over.  If you cannot complete the entire process in one sitting I ask you to please refrain from starting the study until you can set aside at least 30-40 minutes to complete.  Please also do not share the information from these recordings with others as we do not want to compromise the security and validity of this project. 

Once you have completed the video there will be a very short post-research survey for you to complete. You will then be completed with this project.  We would be glad to offer you a possible follow up phone or Zoom interview to discuss the process and your overall thoughts of the simulation and the topic of SA. 

Exclusion Criteria
Your participation will be excluded based on the following:

Required course training
There is no training required to complete this study. 

How much time will the research take? 
Questionnaires may each take about 5 minutes to complete, whilst the simulation exercise will approximately 20 minutes. If completed, a video review with a research team member may take up to 15-20 minutes. Therefore, your total time commitment to this project will be approximately 30-40 minutes.

Possible benefits
The study has the potential to benefit your learning through the practice of simulated scenarios and also debriefing. Longer term impact might include a change to the way in which you approach emergency calls for service. 

There may be some potential for psychological stress due to time constraints during the actual process.  We hope to limit this potential by preparing you ahead of time by fully disclosing the time constraints necessary to complete this study. 

Your participation is confidential. You will be allocated a code number to track your data throughout the study. No records will be disclosed other than to members of the research team. Although a study report may be submitted for publication, only grouped results will be reported; individual participants will not be identifiable in such a report.

There is no payment or reward, financial or otherwise, offered for participation in this project.  However, each participant will be awarded access to a learning management system where they can access free education and receive 2 hours of continuing education units (CEUs) towards your NCCP Crew Resource Management component of your NREMT recertification.  All participants will be entered into a raffle to receive a FREE Littman Cardiology IV Stethoscope with your own custom engraving.

Funding Source
This project requires nor has any funding. 

Can I withdraw from the research? 
Being in this study is voluntary and you are under no obligation to consent to participation. However, if you do consent to participate, you may only withdraw prior to completion of the simulation exercise. You are free to request cessation of the clinical simulation exercise or the performance review.

Storage of data
All copies of questionnaires and consent forms will be stored in a secure server online and will be accessible only to the research team named in this application. The electronic database will be saved on a password-protected computer and be accessible only to the research team named in this application. At completion of the project, data will be transferred to disks and stored in a locked filing cabinet in a locked office of the OSU-OKC campus and will be accessible only to the research team named in this application.

Video recordings of any interviews will be saved on disks and stored in the locked filing cabinet in a locked office of the OSU-OKC campus and will be accessible only to the research team named on this form.

Videos used for training
We seek your permission to use the video from your post-research interviews (if applicable) for future training and ask that you consent to its use by signing the relevant section on the consent form.

If you would like to be informed of the aggregate research findings, please contact the chief investigator Justin Hunter.


If you would like to contact the researchers about any aspect of this study, please contact the Chief Investigator:

If you have a complaint concerning the manner in which this research is being conducted, please contact:


Chief Investigator
Associate Professor Justin Hunter
Phone: +1 405 626 5400
Email: justin.hunter@monash.edu


Professor Brett Williams
Head of Department 
Department of Paramedicine
School of Primary and Allied Health Care
Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences
Monash University
Level 2, Building H, Peninsula Campus
McMahons Road
Frankston VIC 3199
T: +61 3 9904 4283                     
M: +61 410 980 583


Executive Officer
Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee (MUHREC)
Building 3E, Room 111
Research Office
Monash University VIC 3800

Tel: +61 3 9905 2052        Fax: +61 3 9905 3831 Email: muhrec@monash.edu  

Oklahoma State University IRB Staff
Dawnett Watkins, CIP
IRB Manager
Office: 405.744.5700

Whitney McAllister
IRB Coordinator
Office: 405.744.3377

Thank you.


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